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Ge - Germanium

American Photonics optical grade germanium is used mainly in instruments and imaging systems in the wavelength range of 2 to 12µm.  It can be made into windows, lenses and partial reflectors.  APC germanium is non-hygroscopic, non-toxic, has good strength and thermal conductivity, and excellent surface hardness. 

In CO2 laser applications, germanium is used as a 99% partial reflecting rear mirror.  This allows a portion of the laser to transmit for built in power meters.  Germanium has also found many applications in the military sector.



znsms spec chart image
Mechanical Properties
Density
(@25°C)
5.323g/cm3
Knoop Hardness
(@20°C)
780 kg/mm2
Rupture Modulus
(@20°C)
13,000 psi
Young's Modulus
(@20°C)
14.9 X 106 psi
Poisson's ratio
(@20°C)
0.28

Thermal Properties
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
(@20°C)
5.7 X 10-6/°C
Thermal Conductivity
(@20°C)
0.60 W/cm/°C
Specific Heat
0.31 J/g/°C
Optical Properties
Index of refraction inhomogeneity (∆ n/n)
(ppm @ 10.6µm)
<29
Thermo-optic coefficient, dn/dT
(K-1 @ 10.6µm)
40 X 10-1
Bulk Absorption Coefficient
(cm-1 @ 2.5µm)
0.01
(cm-1 @ 7.0µm)
0.017
(cm-1 @ 9.0µm)
0.025
(cm-1 @ 5.25µm)
0.035
Refractive Index
Wavelength (µm)
Index
Wavelength (µm)
Index
Wavelength( µm)
Index
Wavelength (µm)
Index
2.2
4.0879
5.0
4.0160
7.8
4.0061
10.6
4.0028
2.4
4.0732
5.2
4.0149
8.0
4.0057
10.8
4.0026
2.6
4.0599
5.4
4.0139
8.2
4.0053
11.0
4.0025
2.8
4.0523
5.6
4.0128
8.4
4.0049
11.2
4.0024
3.0
4.0451
5.8
4.0118
8.6
4.0044
11.4
4.0023
3.2
4.0399
6.0
4.0107
8.8
4.0042
11.6
4.0023
3.4
4.0311
6.2
4.0097
9.0
4.0040
11.8
4.0022
3.6
4.0289
6.4
4.0092
9.2
4.0038
12.0
4.0021
3.8
4.0267
6.6
4.0087
9.4
4.0036
12.2
4.0020
4.0
4.0245
6.8
4.0083
9.6
4.0034
12.4
4.0020
4.2
4.0223
7.0
4.0079
9.8
4.0033
12.6
4.0019
4.4
4.0205
7.2
4.0074
10.0
4.0031
12.8
4.0019
4.6
4.0189
7.4
4.0070
10.2
4.0030
13.0
4.0018
4.8
4.0172
7.6
4.0066
10.4
4.0029